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Writing references

Writing referencesWhen you write texts and use other people’s thoughts and ideas from books, journal articles and websites, you should refer to them so that others can find the original text.

There are many different rules for how you can do this. On this page we provide some more general tips – you should also check what is applicable to your course and programme.

Copy and paste references

In Libsearch you find the reference by clicking on the book/article title, and then from Detailed record select Cite and copy the reference. For some references in Libsearch (from Database: SwePub and Malmö University Library Catalogue) information about the authors are missing in the Cite-reference. 

LIBRIS makes it easy to create a book reference in one of the most common standards. Find the book in Libris and select Cite.

In Google Scholar, click on the link Cite in the list of results. 

Similar support is available in most databases, look for cite or export links.

Reference styles

Here is a few examples of reference styles that are used, sometimes with local variations, at Malmo University:

  • Harvard, citations in text with author- year in brackets
  • APA is a variation of the Harvard style
  • Vancouver, citation in text with numbers referering to items in the reference list
  • Oxford, citation in text using footnotes
  • IEEE style. Used by engineers, especially within computer science and electro technology.

If you would like more information about writing references and essay writing in general, there are plenty of books on Academic writing in the library, on shelf 808.06.

Reference management programs

If you are writing multiple or longer texts, it is a good idea to use a reference management program to collect references. Many databases makes it easy to export references to the program so you do not need to write them out manually. The programs are connected to Office Word so you can insert references and create bibliographies in your texts.

Find more information about reference management programs in our guide

Last updated by Linda Trygg